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Pages and Files
Age of Religious Wars
Commercial Revolution & Emergence of Territorial States
17th Century Absolutism
Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment
French Revolution, Napoleon, & Congress of Vienna
Pre-World War I
World War I & Between Wars
World War II & Its Aftermath
Art and Literature
Women & Child Raising
1989 Between 1750 and 1850 more and more Western Europeans were employed in cottage industry and in factory production. Analyze how these two types of employment affected employer-employee relations, working conditions, family relations and the standard of living
during this period.
As seen in the late 18th to mid 19th century there was a shift in industry. From the old cottage system to factories, That led to many different affects on the worker in employer-employee relations , living standard , working conditions , and family relations
-Cottage industry lacked any employee-employer relations at all due to the basis of this system
-Employer- Employee relations were dependent on how the employer treated the employee
-Cottage industry was a extended assembly line over months sometimes years to produce products
- Working conditions were horrible in some factories with the various hazards (machines)
-Working conditions were great because employees got to work in their own homes
- Based on a nuclear family system
-Based on an extended family system
- Standards of living were much lower for the factory workers in the inner city
- Demonstrated the old regime
- Standard of living soon improved because of disease and overcrowding
-The household was the unit of production and consumption
- Many technological advances were occurring
- Families in the cottage industry had another job mostly farming
- - Many countries prided themselves on their industrial abilities
- Germ theory forced better living conditions
-Endhland passed various laws on th treatment of employees and factory conditions due to them getting out of hand
-Most to all of the family worked in the fatory
-Workers had a limited relationship with employers due to their infrequent meetings
-Many new machines
1995 Identify four specific changes in science and technology, and explain their effects on Western European family and private life between 1918 and 1970.
Popularized methods of contraception during the 20th century helped to control family size and lead to the improved care of children. Advanced methods of transportation, namely the automobile, facilitated the commute of the working classes, allowing for the development of homes in improved locations. Towards the end of the century, a revolutionary movement swept Europe known as the "age of broadcasting", where massive audiences could be reached through the immediacy of both the radio and the television while families found new reasons to come together for a common purpose.
1. European women took more control over their reproductive lives, began to limit the number of children they bore in order to take better care of those they had
-New devices, such as diaphragms and condoms became widely available in 1920, use of the “rhythm method” and other mechanical devices
-Still attempted traditional methods as well (
or the withdrawal method) but not as successful
2. Parent desire to improve economic and social position of their children reflected an increased concern for children in late 19th century
-Formed deeper emotional ties in families of working and middle classes, more love (intimate connections were avoided in Pre-Industrial times because infant mortality rates were higher and kids were less likely to reach adulthood)
EVIDENCE: -Decline in birthrate to 2 or 3 kids per family from 1920 until World War II
-Contrasted with very high birthrates in 18th and 19th centuries
-In France, increased affection evident in the fewer number of illegitimate babies abandoned as foundlings to orphanages during the 1900’s
1. One of the leading means of land transportation
-German engineer Gottelib Daimler’s internal combustion engine (1887) paved the way to the automobile
-Automotive production on a commercial scale began in late 17th century France
-Henry Ford built the first gasoline-powered car 1896, made automobiles available by low-cost, mass production, assembly line methods with production of the Model T in 1908
-By 1927 over 18 million cars had been distributed
2. Automobiles allowed for the physical separation of home and work life
-Middle classes looked for a neighborhood away from city congestion, their families could now live away from dirty, loud, and polluted factories and cities and commute to work instead of living within close proximity to workplace
-Move into European suburbia - apartment buildings or private homes built close together with small lawns or gardens
-Freedom, flexibility, and convenience of cars freed people from the need to live near railroad stations
-Easier access to new, improved housing developments in outskirts of cities for mostly the working classes
-Families could travel together as families
-Increased sense of security - automobiles were utilized by firemen and police officers to respond quickly to fires and other emergencies, use of ambulances
- -1930’s and 1940’s were the “golden age” of broadcasting
1. 1886-1888 - Heinrich Rudolf Hertz demonstrated the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves based off of James Maxwell’s work, first person to transmit and receive radio
-Known as “wireless telegraphy”
-Nikola Telsa publicized the idea of the radio
-Oliver Lodge introduced radio at Oxford in London
-After World War II, FM radio was introduced in Germany
2. The radio is considered the first modern mass medium: for information, propaganda, culture, and entertainment - it used to reach minds and imaginations of common people
-New presence in homes: families gathered together to listen to live voices rather than just read newspapers, allowed for immediacy, it reached families on a deeper level (within their own homes)
-It joined people into a common culture like never before, drew them together, rallied nationalism
3. Families could be solicited goods/products from a new medium, use for advertisement
-Entertainment for the whole family: Vaudeville theaters performed on radio
-Used as a means of escape from grave economic conditions of the time
-Effected the way politicians ran their campaigns, could be discussed among families and neighborhoods like never before
-Example = Hitler! Nazi propaganda led by Goebbels, utilized radio, were heard by millions
-Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty were Western broadcasters and effective instruments of Western policy during Cold War
1. "A combination of radio and motion picture"
-Dominant form of mass communication, gradually replaced the radio
-Exposed people to other cultures and shaped public opinion
-Introduced in Western Europe after WWII, by end of 1950s most households had access to one or more television channels, by 1970’s most families had a T.V.
-Children both young and teenage were attracted to T.V.
-Known for gathering the family together in the living room, rather than a privatized individual activity - most families only had one T.V. and it had to be shared
-The BBC, British Broadcasting, emerged, reported major news events to massive audience
-During the Vietnam war, images of war were brought directly into homes
1992 Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper role of government in the economy. Give specific examples.
Thesis: Philosophes came to the forefront, bearing ideas concerning the involvement of the government within the economy. Adam Smith, Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon, and Karl Marx were all economists deeply plagued by the state of the economy within their country. They made it their point to bring about reform, however, each had differing opinions as to what extent the government’s involvement in the economy should be. Karl Marx and Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon both believed the government had a duty to aid enterprise and overlook many aspects of the economy. Adam Smith, however, believed in a more hands off government, whose aid would be expected, however, not while concerning private business ventures.
I. Adam Smith was an economist notorious for developing a laissez-faire thought and policy
A: Developed works during the enlightenment
-Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
B: Common thoughts:
-Believed that economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system
-Urged the abolishment of the mercantile system
-Intended to preserve the wealth of the nation, capture wealth of other nations, and to maximize the availability of jobs
-Claimed best way to maximize wealth was to unleash individuals to pursue their own selfish economic interests
C: Smith challenged the assumptions of natural resources
-Saw the resources of water, air, soil and minerals as boundless
-He urged the exploitation of these resources
-True improvement of the human condition seemed to lie in the uninhibited exploitation of natural resources
D: Smith maintained truly unique economic views
-Usually regarded as the founder of laissez-faire ideology
-Favored a limited role for the government in economic life
-Published the Wealth of Nations, where he didn’t oppose all government activity touching the economy
-Believed the state should provide schools, armies, navies and roads
-Also, the government should undertake commercial ventures too expensive or risky for private enterprise
II. Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon was considered one of the first economists, whose ideal government was involved in many aspects of a country’s economy
A: Saint Simon’s background:
-Earliest of socialist pioneers
-He had fought in the American Revolution
-Later he welcomed the French Revolution
_By the time Napoleon had ascended the throne; Saint Simon began a career in writing and social criticism
B. Simon's beliefs concerning the government’s involvement within the economy:
-Believed that modern society would require rational management
-Believed that private wealth, property and enterprise should be subject to an administration other than its own owners
-His ideal government would have consisted of a large board of directors organizing and coordinating the activity of individuals and groups to achieve social harmony
-In a way proved to be the father of technocracy
-Saint Simon truly believed that with the management of experts, poverty and social dislocation would diminish
C: Saint Simon’s lasting effects:
-He had only made an impression on a small group of people
-His societies were always centers for lively discussion of advanced social ideals
-Several of his followers became leaders in the French railway industry during the 1850’s
D: Saint Simon Overall:
-One of the first French founders of socialism
-He helped define the movement by advocating public ownership of factories and a professional managerial corps to run them
-He coined the slogan, “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need”
-This was an idealistic but vague proposal for a planned economy
III. Karl Marx was a socialist, whose philosophy eventually triumphed over most alternative versions of socialism
A: European socialism eventually leads to the inevitable triumph of Marxism
-Marxist ideas triumphed over other socialist ideas through competition
-His ideas criticized the emerging industrial capitalist society.
-Marxism differed from its competitors due to its scientific accuracy, rejection of reform and call for revolution
B: Karl Marx aligned himself with Friedrich Engels
-Engles published the conditions of the Working Class in England, which depicted hardships in working life
-They were asked to write a pamphlet for a secret Communist League
-The communist Manifesto was published in 1848
-The name Communist became more radical than socialist
-Communism implied the outright abolition of private property
-The Manifesto became the most influential political document of history
C: Out come of Marxism:
-Decade had seen much unemployment and deprivation
-Capitalism didn’t collapse as he predicted
-The middle class didn’t become proletarianized
-More people came to benefit from the industrial system
D: Summary of Marxist ideas:
-His communist Manifesto, written with the help of Engles, called for radical solutions t the dilemma of mass poverty in the industrialized world
-Das Kapital, offered a complete analysis of capitalism
1997 Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe’s rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650 to 1800.
The population of Europe increased from 1650-1800. This time period witnessed many changes and advancements in agriculture that ultimately allowed the population of Europe to be fed as it expanded. The increasing demand for clothing began one of the most revolutionary movements in human history, the industrial revolution. This revolution provided mass amounts of cheap goods that could be purchased with excess money accumulated over the prosperous years. The new goods led to the increase in urban centers to support the work force as well as the markets to distribute the goods.
The growth of agricultural advancements and the progression to more efficient large farms resulted in the ability to sustain a larger European population.
-Farmers used better methods to build dikes and to drain land.
Farmers experimented with new crops such as clover and turnips that would increase the amount of animal fodder and to restore the soil.
Iron plows allowed for more productive tilling of the soil.
1801, the enclosure act in England gave parliamentary consent to the confiscation of small plots of land by landlords, and to then enclose them to make large more productive farms.
Grain was cheaper to obtain leaving extra money for other things.
The textile industry was the first industry to establish a factory environment and created the large work force that developed in Europe during the industrial revolution.
The creation of the putting out system in Europe allowed for a more commercialized thread industry as peasants would spin raw fiber into thread that would then be collected by agents of the clothing producers.
The increasing demand for thread soon exceeded that which was produced by the putting out system , leading to the creation of more efficient technologies such as James Kay’s flying shuttle and James Hargreaves spinning jenny.
The need for thread once again exceeded the putting out system and thus lead to the invention of the water frame by Richard Awkwright. This led to the creation of the factory, where numerous water frames could be operated by workers to produce cotton more productively.
The end of the putting out system to factories resulted in the shift from the home of a place for work to seeking outside employment. This led to the establishment of a working class.
The movement from rural areas to cities led to a population increase in urban centers, as cities became the place to pursue employment and purchase new goods.
Small urban centers near rural factories began to increase in size to accommodate the needs of farmers and factory workers.
With new farming technologies there was extra money that could be spent on non-necessities, as well as surplus grain that was distributed in the booming urban centers.
People went to cities from rural areas to peruse new employment opportunities that began from the industrial revolution.
New demands durrring the beginning of the industrial revolution began for items such as ; china, toys, buttons, kitchen utensils etc. the standard of living increased.
2005 Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on working-class families from 1750 to 1900.
2003 Describe and analyze responses to industrialization by the working class between 1850 and 1914.
Industrialization greatly affected the the cultural and socioeconmic fabric of europe leading to the creation of a large, unskilled landless working class that lived in the burgeioning Urban centers of Europe. Religion in the working class was on the wane largely due to a lack of religious personel in major cities and the diffusion of ideas and beliefs held in intellectual and upper-class circle. Moreover the highly mobile working class , began to form a family strucutre much different from thier rural counterparts. To adjust to the new era, Trade unions were formed to advance the rights and demands of the working class
Increasing loss of religious faith
a. The population of Europe had outrsipped the resources of many churches, as a result the working class had little experience with organized religion
b. The Roman Catholic church clung to old, conservative ideas, Pope Pius IX condemned the tenents of modern political liberlalism and throught
c.Pope Leo XIIIand his Rerum Novarum reinforced the status quo and condemned socialism
d.Ernst Mach published The Science of Mechanics which stated that science is descriptive of the sensations observed by the observer, this furhter muddled deistic and theistic notions of the universe, the relgious void in intellecutal circles began to go down the social lader
e. Darwin, Origin of Species: theorized about the prinicple of natural slection- which exxplained how species had changed or evolved over time, in addition he wrote descent of man which theorized man's evolution. Contradicted biblical narrative of creation, bolstered criticism of the bible
f. Auguste Comte, positive philosophy: final explanations of nature requre no metaphysical or supernatural concepts
g.Less and less religious schooling, increased focus on reading writing and arithmetic
h. David Friedrich Strauss: live of Jesus, proposed that jesus was a myth that arose form the socioeconomic conditions of the time.
i. Freidrich nitzche criticized Christianity as being a religion for the weak and downdrodden,
j. Gradually these ideas began to create a spirit of increased secularism in the working class, reliigion sitll played a role however
l. Little room in churches for potential worshipers to even sit
Changes in familial Structure
a. Single Women began to work increasingly outside of the house, marrying later and a decline in the number of children being born
b.These working class women often worked in garments for very low wage, often subject to layoffs
c. Surplus of sinlge women lead to a rise in prositution, many prostitutes came from unskilled families
d,Formation of nuclear families, mother, father, and children
e. Some Child-labor was used, outlawed early on( factory Act) 1833
f. Rate of Premature births increased dramatically
g, Consumer goods began to be bought by the working class
h.Offspring spread out all across nations led to the dissolution of omst extended families in the working class
i. Socializing based less on the household and more on outside activities like eduction and jobs
Advent of Trade Unions
a. Industrialization concentrated labor into commercial areas such as mills, factories and mines
b. Trade Unions were formed to advance the interests of the common people
c. Strikes used to help obtain results
d.at first skilled workers began to form labor unions, but by the turn of the century,industrial unions for unskilled workers were being organized as well
e.These unions met intense oppostion from employers, long strikes were conducted frequently to make emploers accept thier demands
f. Unions represnted collective association for overcoming economi difficulty
g, Unions first made legal in england in 1871, france 1884, germany 1890
h. UNions and strikes helped bring down violent rioting to solve problems
i. After the working classes obtained the right to vote. the trade unions began to support socialist parties and leaders
j. Trade Unions gradually increased the standard of living, in line with the thoughts of many " new " socialists such as the fabians and the German Social Democrats
2006 Discuss how the two structures shown below reflect the societies and cultures that produced them.
The Arch of Triumph, Paris, 1806-1836
The Crystal Palace, London, 1850-1851
The Arc of Triumph and the Crystal Palace both were constructed to reflect the society and culture in which they were made. France, still a very militaristic nation, focused on honoring its military which brought a sense of nationalism to its people. England however was determined to demonstrate its industrial and economic prosperity through this palace which was both new and architecturally advanced.
Crystal Palace and the Society and Culture of England
England was moving into an industrial age.
The Crystal Palace was a place in London for people to go to see all of the latest technological advancements.
Many new inventions were being made during this time period.
England was the first European country to modernize and truly build up its industries.
Showed the great advances that England was making during the Industrial Revolution.
Products were being sold that were not just meant for the upper class, but for the middle class and lower class as well.
The architecture of the palace itself was very advanced for its time which showed the world that England was the world leader in manufacturing and innovations.
The Great Exhibition brought over 14,000 people from all over the world to see how advanced English society and culture had become industrially and technologically.
England spent their money on expanding their industries instead of preparing for future wars.
The palace represents England as a nation that relies not on their military, but their economy and industries.
Showed the desire for England to expand their trading to more countries by displaying the products that they had to offer in exchange for raw materials in other, less industrialized nations.
Arc of Triumph and the Society and Culture of France
Unlike that of England, France was not as determined to quickly industrialize their nation.
France was more of a militaristic nation whose concern was to gain territorial power by the use of war and be the dominating power in Europe militarily and politically.
The Arc of Triumph is a monument that was erected to honor the soldiers that fought in previous wars and give a reason for other men to join the growing military that France had in the early 1800's.
Its main concern was to honor the soldiers from the Napoleonic Wars.
France was a more nationalistic nation than England was and spent their money building up their military.
France used this growth in military to fight later wars such as WWI and WWII.
The Arc of Triumph was not architecturally advanced and displayed their lack of interest for beginning an Industrial Era in France and creating a stronger and more stable economy.
The arc represents France as a nation that relies on their military and not on their industries since France was determined on displaying their military achievements and not their hopes for economic achievements.
The Arc was built structurally out of admiration for the Roman people who were very strong militarily and whose territory was vast at the height of its empire.
The Arc was built by Napolean whose army would parade around the arc after a victorious battle or war.
At the time that it was built, Napolean had conquered over a large expanse of territories for France and was in need of more troops to support the upcoming internal and foreign conflicts.
2007 Analyze the problems and opportunities associated with the rapid industrialization of western Europe in the nineteenth century.
The nineteenth century was a period of rapid industrialization for nearly all of Western Europe. It combined intellectual thought with physical action to create a myriad of new industries that revolutionized everyday life. Unfortunately, this second industrial revolution was not all fun and games. Widespread urbanization and increased foreign competition brought about and economic downturn and a low standard of living for the vast majority of the European population. However, these problems opened new doorways in the realm of public health and housing reform, and thus continued the stream of forward progress that has become known as one of the most influential turning points in history.
Creation of New Industries That Revolutionized Everyday Life
1850 Henry Bessemer developed new process to manufacture steel cheaply and quickly
Between 1860 and 1913, more than 200 times more steel was being produced
Solway process, utilization of chemical by-products for soaps, dyes, etc.
Electricity was largest contribution from the second industrial revolution
1879, Thomas Edison invented electric light
1881, first electric power plant established in Britain
Electrical use would eventually stretch to subways, streetcars, etc.
Industries also sprang up that were based largely on oil
1887 Gottlieb Daimler invented the internal combustion engine
Thus came about invention of automobile, which was popularized by Henry Ford (assembly lines make production cheaper)
Automobiles needed petroleum to run, greater demand for plastics and other petroleum based products
Major oil companies included Standard Oil Company (US), British Shell Oil, and Royal Dutch Petroleum
Widespread Urbanization and Foreign Competition Create Economic Downturn and Poor Standard of Living
Economic downturn caused by increased foreign competition (Germany, France, etc. catching up to Britain in regards to industrialization) and bad weather
Caused depression in 1873 that forced closing of several major banks, followed by two decades of economic stagnation
Prices and wages fell, strikes and labor unrest were common
Economic downturn helped lead to rise of trade unions and socialist parties
Urbanization caused massive amounts of crowding within cities (also caused by poor housing)
Large amounts of unemployment, disease could spread easily, sewage problems
In Paris, Seine River was an open sewer and the streets were filled with garbage
1830s and 1840s witnessed large Cholera epidemic, hit all classes equally, demanding a solution
Opportunities for Reform in Public Health and Housing
Development of suburbs began in response to overcrowding in cities
Were possible due to development of electric subways and streetcars
Middle class liked it because there was less congestion, lower classes liked it because of affordability
Health reform was also big, decided that new water and sewage systems were needed to clean up cities
England, Public Health Act, 1848
France, Melon Act, 1851
Private property could be condemned for posing health hazards to community and could be purchased for building of sewer and water systems
Bacterial theory of disease widely accepted after work by , Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister
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